September 20, 2018

I'm 100% Corn Fed and Totally OK with It

I happen to love September because of one thing - sweet corn. Today many of us struggle with corn. We don't know how to fit it into our diet, many denounce it as a product of industrial agriculture and monoculture, we read labels and reject anything with a corn product on it and we steer clear of corn syrup. It sometimes seems as if the only safe corn product that I don't get raise eyebrows with at my local Whole Foods are locally made corn tortillas. I guess they're OK.

A few of us still celebrate sweet corn and dried corn however, especially as a garden crop. Even small -yard gardeners with limited space can grow some varieties - especially new ones specially bred for containers (although I do feel that these are best considered as a novelty crop and not something worthy of feeding a family with). The fact is a full raised bed 4 x 8 feet or a 10 x 20-foot plot can provide a decent crop if you have the room.

Adventurous gardeners and in-touch foodies still secretly seek out rarest varieties but don't make the mistake of assuming one is better than another simply because it has a fun name or an early introduction date. Unlike tomatoes, heirloom varieties aren't always better tasting, especially when it comes to sweet corn. Dried corn, on the other hand, is often more complex and interesting if one does find a rare, old variety. Just do your homework

My tiny plot of corn still gives us corn in the tiny gap season when our local farms seem to run out.

I'm a pretty easygoing dude but a few things get under my skin. One of those things is sweet corn varieties available at farm stands and farmer's markets. Mainly the names of the varieties. This very well may be my personal gripe but when I see "Butter and sugar" spray painted on a sign I go crazy. (I know, I'm crazy too but really?). Lumping all sweet corn into two buckets (bushels?) helps no one.

I snapped this yesterday as I was driving home near my house. This isnt a farm but rather a 'pop-up' farm stand every summer in an abandoned lot. I assume everthing here comes from the Boston vegetable market but it is rather typical of what one seees everywhere.

Corn is affected more by cultural trends than most any other vegetable. My father considered himself a corn aficionado (I mean - you have no idea, he was literally crazy about sweet corn).  My dad came from an entirely different era—born in 1914. I am certain that corn on the cob was often a complete meal for him and his 7 brothers in this house. I know this because we were one of those families that often had a few dozen ears of sweetcorn on the table for meals in the summer not to save money, but because it was good.

 I am neither, although there is hardly a corn variety that I don't like, for fresh eating, I prefer a new hybrid by far (and not a super-sweet sugar-enhanced one from the 1980's either). Like most corn geeks I like a balance between corn flavor, starch, and some sugar, but mostly I like the popping texture that comes with some of the newest hybrids when you eat them straight off of the cob. There is nothing like it. If you've ever enjoyed very fresh corn cooked straight from the field, you know what I am talking about. The breakthrough of SE or Sugar Extender (sugar enhanced) corn was a big breakthrough in the late 20th century, and while those varieties are far better than old sweet corn varieties, they were bred for long-life on the supermarket shelf, and many of us just think that they are too sweet when compared against new Augmented Shrunken SH2 genetics or even Synergistic varieties.

Whah? Are you going all 'GMO' on me Matt?

No worries. I shall explain in far more detail than any human needs in this post. Which is probably why my publisher cut this chapter on corn from my upcoming book MASTERING THE ART OF  VEGETABLE GARDENING (shameless plug - avail on Amazon now, but not shipped until it is published in December). This chapter should give you an idea on how I approach veg gardening in the book, but know that I've edited this down quite a bit.

I am hardly a normal consumer of corn (I am also hardly an expert, but rather a fan).  My history with sweet corn dates back to the 1960's as I was tutored by a father (a serious corn addict) who demanded excellence when it came to fresh on-the-cob corn varieties.  We would hop with him into our 1969 Country Squire station wagon and drive to certain local farms (somewhere he used to work as a kid) as their fields became ready to pick. He somehow knew what varieties Mr. Allaire or Mr. Salo was planting that year, and he knew the maturity dates. He also would demand that we be allowed out into the field to pick the corn so that it would be of optimum freshness.

'Illusion' F1 is a sweet Synergistic corn, available both as organic seed and conventional. It's our most favortie mid-season corn for the home garden. 'Sugar and Butter'? It's probably sold as that.

We were one of those households where sweet corn was considered a complete meal. Dozens would be cooked and that would be supper on any given weeknight in the summer. We would only be allowed to cut corn off of the cobs if it was too old, or if we needed to take it somewhere like on a picnic or to school for lunch.

Dad always believed that white corn was less desirable than yellow corn (which isn't true, really) but his parents who were born in 1889 only ate white corn. Dad was born in 1914, a time when corn hybridizing was changing things.  While his parents only ate white corn (leaving the yellow 'cow corn' for farmers to eat green), dad and his 7 brothers preferred all-yellow corn. The corn of their generation, thanks to a new variety in the 1920's called 'Golden Bantam’.

Corn seems to come in styles and follows fashion. Bi-colored corn eventually became more popular than all-yellow corn in the mid-20th century but it was never my fathers favorite. I on the other hand while young wanted white corn, simply because it seemed rare and odd. No one had yet heard of 'Silver King'. ´ Either that or old-timers confused the new Silver King with an old variety with the same name - a silver dent dry corn that was introduced under the same name in the late 1930's. 'Siver King' was just a SE or sugar enhanced strain of 'Silver Queen' (an older SU standard corn). My point is - these are still old late 20th century varieties and we might want to move on from them. With over 125 varieties commonly grown, you probably have moved on but you just don't know it yet.

When I was a kid in the late 1960s a ‘new’ variety was introduced called ‘Silver King,’ and I can remember thinking that it was cool because it was all white, and it was sweeter than 'Silver Queen'. The problem was I coudl never get my dad to buy it. Then came Bi-colored corn. "Too fancy and novel," dad said. It wasnt until bi-color corn started to be marketed under the variety namesthat was more appealing did he try it.  Names then began to be more user firendly and appealing. Thus, ‘sugar & butter’. Unfortunately, the original Sugar and Butter' is rarely grown today but most if not all bi-colored corn is simply sold under this name.

Blue corn varieties are generally heirloom types and are best for ornamental use. Still, how pretty is this Indigo variety?

Wouldnt you want corn that had everything?
Flavor? The perfect balance of starch, sugar, and pop?
Then knowing the variety name is key.

Farm stands and market growers knwo that sweet corn is a cash crop. Even more so today. The race starts in early spring when growers try to get their corn planted earlier than their competitors. This year I noticed Remay floating fabric over an entire field near the farm where I grow veggies. The owner told me that they now plant corn as plugs very early in the spring - weeks before anyone else. Then they cover the fields with floating row covers to protect the seedlings from frost. This gives them a jump on all of the local competition.

A tip for us at home - corn plugs transplant easily and even though I've been starting my corn in cell containers for years, it does feel good to know that even the pros are doing it too. A 10 foot by 10 foot plot can hold 100 plants, and a couple of plug trays ensures 100% germination. I just pop the young plants into prepared ground with little effort even as early as mid april. May 5th is the typical sowing date for sweet corn here in Zone 5 New England.

Varieties do matter for both commercial farmers and home growers as date-to-maturity while important, isnt as critical as variety. Does it germinate in cold soil? Will the pollen affect a neighboring plot of corn? Will the stalks grow too tall and shade something else? Will all the corn come in at the same time? Some varieties grow better in early spring, others better in high summer. Some are best for the fall.

Flavor though is often the most important reason why a home grower would want to think long about the variety they are growing. Commercial farmers tend only to choose their crop varieties based on the market. Flavor doesn't factor in. Ten years ago you never knew the difference between a Brandywine tomato and a Big Girl. Today, you do. You also know the difference between the flavor of a 'Red Delicious' apple, vs a sour"GrannySmith' from the luscious sweetness of a 'Honeycrisp'. My point is that more and more of us today are informed - we know the difference. We are familiar with the names of some varieties, especially with fruit. We can tell the difference between hype and authenticity. We'll pay more for something that tastes better but with corn, we are still being told that it's just all one or two varieties. Odd when there are literally hundreds and hundreds of varieties. It's time to push farmers, farm stands, supermarkets and buyers to let us know what we are buying.

Home raised popcorn is a fun crop. Just be sure that the ears are pollinated well (by hand with tassels from another plant). This crop was raised in a double row that was hand pollinated last summer. Dry it well though if you plan to pop it.

Today it's almost impossible to find the true variety of sweet corn one is buying.  And don''t just tell me that it is something called 'Butter and Sugar' or 'Silver Queen'. I don't buy that.  Of course, new variety name probably need some tweaking or creativity, and few are any good or helpful. So renaming corn might be in order first. I can't imagine anyone stopping to buy a dozen ears because they saw a handpainted sign that says 'NATIVE. SS3778R F1 Corn, NEXT LEFT'. Yay!

Pollinate your corn at home by snapping off a tassel that is dripping with pollen on a dry afternoon, and shake it over the silks which are emergin on the little ears. It;s fun to do, and doesnt hurt the plant. Imagine every silk as a thread that leads to a kernel.

"Try this experiment. The next time you are buying corn, ask the seller what variety it is. (I do this all the time and only once (in Vermont) did I get an honest answer.). Most sellers will just say 'It's Butter and Sugar' or 'Silver Queen', even if they know the real name of the variety they are growing. People think those are varieties (they are, but I doubt that this is the variety they are buying), more often than not they are buying a 'type'of corn, and most growers just sell all bi-color corn as 'Butter and Sugar' and all white corn as 'Silver King or Queen'. At least on the east coast.

Old varieties of dry corn are often superior to newer ones. Here is one case where heirloom really delivers. Green Oaxcan corn makes some of the best cornmeal.

We can't blame them. Most growers are scared shitless to admit that they actually are growing a variety named something like Mirai® 227 F1 or a brand new patented or registered augmented sugar  gene SH2 or even a new Synergistic corn variety (which may be the best for texture and flavor) because most of thee varieties sound more like insecticide than corn varieties. Names like 'Vision MXR', 'Kickoff', 'Illusion' ' Allure', or 'Trinity' isn't going to get a home chef excited. The folks who name corn really need some help, but then again, they are trying with names like 'Sugar Pearl', 'Sugar Buns' or 'Delectable' - those are names that should capture our attention, but they are so similar to 'Sugar and Butter' why confuse people?

Homemade cornmeal is easy to make. I made this last year in my Vitamix blender.

Corn genetics concern people, but probably more than they should: at least from the standpoint of the home gardener. First, there are no GMO corn varieties that a home grower could grow or even access. Regardless, some seed catalogs will state in a burst on their cover “NO GMO’S!” which is akin to saying that fat-free is healthy for you. The truth is, corn breeding is science, and if you believe in science and all of the good that it can bring to our world, then you should be able to appreciate why new corn varieties are often better performers in the garden than most heirloom varieties. We should also consider that in one sense corn is already genetically modified—through selection over the millennia. 

If you have any concerns about GMO corn, then do try growing your own dry corn. Beleive me - nothing tastes like home-grown cornmeal. A 100 sq foot bed supplied us with 5 quarts of cornmeal.

There are a few (very few -like 9%) new GMO sweet corn varieties but you are not going to find any in a seed catalog as one would need to go through an agent and then sign a complex licensing agreement with Monsanto or another developer. You should feel safe buying seed anywhere as no GMO seed is available for home growers at all- so relax. Even though a variety may sound 'sciency' or technical, it's not GMO if you are finding it in a seed catalog. This includes Johnny's Selected Seeds or Burpee.

That said, some GMO sweet corn on-the-ear is showing up in supermarkets, but I imagine that most of this corn is raised in the south for northern markets during the winter. The corn in these cases was bred to have 'stacked genes', bundled if you will so that the variety could be resistant to a pre-emergent herbicide or immune to a fungus. While this typically doesn't bother me, I still wouldn't want my cornfield to be sprayed with glyphosate or Round-up. You see, it's not the genetic engineering that concerns me, it's what they might spray the crop with. That's where I stand with GMO's and until I see some data that proves safety one way or another, I would never buy GMO corn at a market. Yet here's the kicker - I would love to grow GMO corn in my own garden at home - but until they make GMO seed available to home gardeners, this will need to wait. I do appreciate the science of genetic engineering - So-called 'Franken foods' don't scare me at all.  I 'get' the science. Breed me a blight-free tomato with the flavor of summer, please. I want that now.

How's this: Instead of worrying about GMO's and labeling, why arent we all demanding to at least know the variety name that we are buying? Wouldnt that solve everything?

There are many varieties of dry, heirloom or ornamental corn available today. Each are so rewarding to grow in the homer garden.

Corn is a very old crop. One of the oldest man has ever cultivated. We know where corn originated, and it looked nothing like the crop we recognize today.  There is no longer any true wild corn ( as is the case with most vegetables that we eat today as all have been selected and cross-bred and selected again by our ancestors - genetically modified, if you will by selection), so while we know that corn is the subject of many Netflix documentaries intended to scare us, science and botanists agree that there is little data to suggest that corn is bad for us.

What gets us into trouble with corn is processed food and how much processed corn products enter our food system. We might all agree to try an avoid corn in our food as an additive, as we try to avoid it in pet food, in cattle food and even in chicken food. What the heck happened to being proud of having been corn fed? Has that gone the way that being 'Milk fed? Probably, but aside from building stong bodies twelve ways, corn can be a part of a balance diet (sic). Come on, what about bourbon or whiskey? How about Cheese doodles or Doritos? We all consume corn but we just justify it in different ways. :)

We all know that corn is botanically considered a grass, and that the corn we know today looks nothing like it's wild ancestors. Like cabbage or cauliflower it was selected from a wild species of maize found in Mexico over centuries of natural and human selection. Like most every vegetable we eat today it too has been essentially genetically modified over time by us makeing selections of our favortie traits, and these are passed on.

According to the National Science Foundation and molecular biologists, the wild ‘corn’ was a branched grass now known to botanists as Balsas teosinte.  With its hard seed coat or shell, the idea that we could revert to growing wild corn is unrealistic. Yet corn stands as one of the greatest achievement of mankind, and regardless of your political or environmental position regarding the culture of corn, we as a species probably wouldn’t be here today if it wasn’t for corn.

This is a variety isnt 'Butter and Sugar' but it is called 'Xtra-Tender 2171- F1 Hybrid grown from organic seed.
It's an SH2 or 'Augmented Shrunken Gene variety. Not GMO, even though it sounds like it. It's worth growing for both flavor and texture in the home garden, not to mention disease resistance to 'Stewart's Wilt' and Leaf Blight.

Looking at corn through a different lens, however, from the view of the home owner who might like to raise to fresh or dried corn in the home vegetable garden, does change the perspective a bit. Setting all discussion of GMO’s and high-fructose corn syrup aside, growing corn as a vegetable crop at home is a safe and worthwhile venture. In fact, sweet or dry corn from the home garden can be one of the tastiest and fruitful crops one can grow.

If you are interested is raising corn, however, there are some realities to face. First, corn requires space, and while the minimum square footage isn’t as great as you might imagine (a 10 x 10-foot bed can yield a few meals) to grow corn well and to make it worthwhile, a larger space is more practical.
Growing dry corn for use in corn meal can be a worthwhile pursuit, but It is with sweet corn where the freshness and variety really set aside home-raised corn apart. Before there were super-sweet varieties bred to hold their sugar content longer, sweet corn varieties simply had to be grown at home and brought into the kitchen immediately and cooked. As most gardeners know, old gardening texts often wax on about “having a pot of water boiling before one runs out to the garden to pick the sweet corn’ to maximize its sweetness.

Of course, you still do that, and even the super-sweet varieties will seem sweeter, but then, any vegetable will seem sweeter if picked and prepared immediately. Fresh summer sweet corn is more like a religion, however, especially in North America where some families may eat a few dozen for an evening meal.

Corn success begins with the variety you chooses. I am fond of both heirloom heritage corn varieties and new hybrids, but I tend to grow heritage varieties as dried corn as it is supremely delectable compared to any new dried corn. But when it comes to sweet corn, I believe that the newer the variety is, the better it is. 

Johnny's Selected Seeds carrys many good varieties of corn for the home grower, but again, the variety names may not attract you to them.

CORN VARIETIES - Naming is everything.

Like fashion, great corn names will never be on the tip of the consumer’s tongue again as there are just too many to choose from. And as such, the names become diluted in a sea of sameness. No one would get excited about growing a crop of ‘Amaize’ or ‘Everprime’. 'SUGAR AND BUTTER' is a great name, it has Madison Avenue written all over it. I mean who wouldnt want something that tasted that good and sweet? Plus, it was pretty.

The days of name recognition the likes of Silver Queen should be gone but they arent. Good names for veggies stick ( and for Fruit, for that matter - don't get me started about the lies that exist with 'Honeycrisp' apples today. "Wait...what?" Briefly - Honeycrisp the variey is loseing it's patent protection so theorhetically any sweet apple could be sold under this name, but I digress) When it comes to corn, few if any of us truly knows the name of any corn variety that we are buying at a farmstand. Even though a few variety names today sound delicious - (‘Kandy Korn’ sounds not all that bad), all corn will probably be marketed simply as ‘Sugar & Butter  or 'Butter and Sugar' Corn until a really good descriptive name comes along. That said, this will probably not happen as new corn varieties are being developed every year and honestly, they all rather look the same to the consumer. 

So unlike apples or tomatoes where certain variety names can turn virtually overnight into brand names when it comes to sweet corn, we may be stuck with descriptive types with names from the mid-20th century like 'Silver Queen' "Silver King' or 'Butter and Sugar'. My dream of having a farm stand that sells 6 or 8 varieties of corn with the actual name will never become a reality, which is probably a good thing as the business model has flaws, beginning with advertising. No one is ever going to stop the car if they see a sign that says “NATIVE ‘FLAGSHIP II’ CORN, NEXT LEFT,” and they certainly are never going to buy a dozen and a half of the most flavorful corn “HMX5346e”.

The fact is we live in a world which is divided both politically and unfortunately intellectually. If a farm stand offered one table with heirloom 'Silver Queen' ears of corn, and another table stacked high with a Synergistic corn variety like 'Illusion F1 hybrid' or an Augmented Shrunken SH2 variety like or 'Xtra TENDER NUMBER 227'or even 'Mirai'® which is trademarked, you might assume that these are scaryGMO varieties. (In case you are wondering - all of these new varieties which are far superior to old varieties are each available as organic seed and are not GMO). But their names do present a huge marketing challenge for anyone marketing sweet corn to a public that has their antennae up high.

This leaves us, the home grower, to just make the corn choices ourselves as no farm stand, supermarket or even canned or frozen food will list a corn variety on their signage or label unless it was one they are familar with. With so many varieties to choose from, it’s best to try a couple of different varieties and types each year. Even in the small garden, if grown tightly and pollinated properly, a crop of popcorn or heirloom dried corn can be grown with little effort. With the diversity available given the selections in most any seed catalog, why not grow corn? Why limit your corn intake to what the local monoculture farm decides is best to grow?

Now- there are some antique corn varieties from the nineteenth century or even much older that are very superior to new ones, but these are dried corn varieties such as the types known as Dents (the kernels dry with a little dent in them). If you prefer what many describe as ‘a real corny flavor’ in fresh corn, then the old Bantam varieties are for you, at least as a fresh sweet corn. They offer a rich, corn flavor with sugar content that is significantly lower which some foodies prefer when corn is used in a recipe. As fresh eating though (off-the-cob), newer varieties are the best hands down. And iot's not all about sugar or sweetness. Many corn geeks prefer corn that sacrafices super-sweetness for texture - i.e. kernels that pop in the mouth when you bite on the cob.

Fair warning, corn classification is very confusing. Dont' beleive me? Go to a Harris Seeds or Johnny's site and see for yourself. These are good sites where you can test your corn savvyness. With sweet corn, the relevant distinctions are about the sugar content and how long the corn holds up on the ear after picking. Then of course, is texture and color.

As I said earlier few realize that most sweet corn varieties had all-white kernels until 1902, when ‘Golden Bantam’ was introduced.  It's funny today to hear some people assume that a vegetable is either genetically engineers or a frankenveggie just because it seems odd or different. It's not unusual at all to hear one insist that all-white or red corn, purple or golden cauliflower or even maroon and white carrots are the result of living in a genetically modified world. Actually, it's more like the other way around. Before the 1840's all carrots were purple, red or white with orange being selected by the Dutch in the mid-1800s's. Yellow corn was considered fit only for animals and white corn was preferred for human consumption.

Choosing the best sweet corn for your tastes today isn't easy though. Corn classification is so damn confusing!

Variety names are either organized by genotype or by 'type' and without a chart to follow, few if any of us know the difference between an SE, SH2 or SU let alone an Augmented Shrunken SH2. I mean - who would buy that?

Examples include SU (sugar) and SE (Sugar Enhanced) and SH2 (Augmented Shrunken). Augmented Shrunken, by the way, is just a bad name for a gene that simply shrivels away—clearly, scientists weren’t focused on marketing at that time. The only downside to the SH2 and some SE varieties is that the pollen drift can and will affect the quality of the other - in the same season (unlike squash). All varieties must be separated or the kernels will vary in quality. In the home, garden be sure to space corn crops at leave 60 feet away from each other—remember, corn is wind pollinated.


Normal corn means heirloom, or just old-fashioned. ‘Silver Queen’ is a good example. It has one sugar gene (su-1), which will convert to starch quickly after picking. It has a very short shelf life.

Sugar Enhanced (SE) corn was bred from corn varieties with various sugar genes that work along with the su-1 gene above. While these varieties are sweeter (often 25 percent to 100 percent sweeter than normal corn) they also have sugars that will convert to starch over time. Refrigeration near 34 °F will slow down this conversion, but unless the corn was picked on the same day that you picked it, it will begin to decline in sweetness. 

Supersweet corn is indeed super-sweet, and has a slower conversion to starch than Sugar Enhanced corn. It’s often crunchier too, which many people prefer. The high-sugar content can last as long as 2 weeks if refrigerated. The downside is that Supersweet varieties are not cold-soil tolerant at all. You must wait until the soil has warmed to above 60°F in summer to plant, as they can be difficult to establish in cool spring weather. As such, supersweet corn is planted in cold climates as a second crop to follow a fast-maturing, early season crop.

As if Sugar Enhanced and Supersweet weren’t confusing enough, enter Synergistic corn. These varieties are probably what you will find for sale at will find at a roadside farm stand. They are hybrids bred to have a blend of sugar genes. Something like two copies of se genes and one copy of sh2 genes, for example. Just know that Synergistic corn varieties often have tender kernels and high sugar content, but this too alternates from variety to variety. Some feel that the texture of some Synergistic corn varieties are not as crunchy as some Supersweet types, depending again on the variety. Good seed companies that carry many corn varieties will list what classification a corn variety falls under.

Mirai is a class of super-sweet corn that has been is showing up in many catalogs. You’ll see varieties listed as a Mirai-type, or something like ‘Mirai 315bc’ or ‘Mirai bicolor’. Mirai corn is not genetically modified. It was created by selection. Most gardeners and growers agree that it seems to have the best of all worlds. The flavor of old-fashioned corn (as it shares some genetics with them) and a blend of the various sugar genes listed above all created by careful cross breeding and selection in the field. 

As a home gardener, I would choose Mirai and SH2 varieties over all others. NOTE: Mirai corn and some Synergistic corn must be isolated when planted as pollen from SE sugar enhanced and other enhanced sweet corn varieties will affect its sweetness. Plant crops at least 60 feet or more away.

Often you will see Augmented Shrunken Corn represented in varieties like ‘Xtra-Tender 227A’ and in some AAS winners, like ‘American Dream’. The term only refers to how the genetics function and are not anything unsavory. The reason these types are good for home growers is that their flavor and texture is exceptional, but their kernels are too tender for machinery to pick them for shipping, so they are best for home growers. All are highly resistant to blight as well.

Since many new corn varieties must be isolated to take advantage of their special qualities, there are two groups to know which should be isolated from each other. SU and SE GOUP, which includes Normal sugary corn (SU), Sugar enhanced (SE) and Syntergistic/Mirai. These must be isolated from SH2 Group, which includes Shrunken (SH2) and Augmented Shrunken varieties. Check the seed catalog descriptions and always space these varieties at least 60 feet from each other.

The methods for raising sweet corn are basically the same for dried corn, aside from the obvious fact that the corn must be allowed to dry on the stalk. Most field corn varieties are taller than modern sweetcorn, so be prepared for corn stalks that could reach over 12 feet tall. Popcorn and many ornamental corn varieties such as Indian corn can be short, often with surprisingly small ears. 
Pick drying corn once the corn stalks begin to dry and turn light brown. The ears of most varieties can be pulled off in their entirety, and the husks pulled back to reveal the gorgeous kernels underneath. Hang corn ears to dry further, especially if you are planning to crush it for corn flour or use it for popping corn. 

Corn crops can be beautiful in the garden, so think about the site, being brave and even sowing corn in the front yard or planting a tidy block of rows near the driveway—I’ve seen incredibly attractive blocks of corn planted in front of posh contemporary homes that look better than hip landscaping.
The site should have rich soil, as corn is a heavy feeder. Aged manure should be turned in or, if you keep chickens, cast the shavings or straw over the bed through the winter and turn that in. If manure cannot be found either in a bag at the nursery or hardware store, commercial fertilizer will do. A 20-20-20 or other high-nitrogen feed is essential. Not just at planting, but also side-dressed through the summer.

Corn can usually be sown in cool soil, but use seed treated with a fungicide if soils are lower than 60°F. Since corn maturity varies by variety, look at the days to maturity and base your plant timing off that. There are many varieties that can be planted in early to mid-summer and still have time to mature even in cold growing climates. Height is a number worth noting as well when ordering corn seed, as some sugar-enhanced (SE) or Supersweet varieties can be very short (3 feet) while some heirlooms can tower over 12 feet. Think about the shade the stalks will cast on other vegetable crops as well.

Corn must be grown on a grid system, as it is wind pollinated. A 1-foot matrix works well in small gardens, with two seeds sown every 1 foot evenly across a bed. The deeper the bed, the better. If raising in rows, make sure that there are at least four rows or more to ensure that pollen can fall until the silks which will appear on the young ears of corn. 

More than any soil problem or water, it is poor pollination that causes the most angst among home growers. If you are forced to raise a single row of corn (it can be done), pay attention to the pollen that forms on the tassels at the top of the stalk. You’ll know when it is ready as it will begin to fall off onto the foliage if the stalk is tapped. You will need to pollinate by hand in some cases. Cut off a tassel or two, and use them as a brush or wand, shaking them around and over each ear of corn which will be showing a tassel of green threads. Picture in your head that every strand of silk must find a pollen grain for every kernel of corn to form. 


‘Illusion’ F1 hyrbid (72 days)—An early synergistic corn with tolerance to cool soils and stromg disease resistance. 

‘Mirai®301bc hybrid—The premiere corn in the new class Mirai of sweet corn. Corn that is an SH2-type of corn must not be closer than 60 feet to other varieties especially thsoe that are SU sugary or SE Sugar Enhanced corn as the pollen will affect sweetness.

‘American Dream’ hybrid SH2 2018 AAS winner—fine, sweet bicolor for home gardeners.

‘Honey ‘N Pearl’—hybrid SH2 1988 AAS winner—the original SH2 bicolor that took the corn world by storm.

‘Xtra-Tender 2171’ F1 hybrid (71 days)—A bicolored super sweet varity which is also available as organic seed.

This black pop corn was just beutiful enough to use as table decor last Thanksgiving. I only grew a few long rows but never bothered to dry it properly to pop it well. 

‘Robust 997’ F1 hybrid (112 days)—A large-eared golden popcorn with 8-inch ears.

‘Glass Gem’ open-pollinated (120 days)—Rainbow-colored translucent kernals that look like jewels. 

‘Jerry Petersen ‘Blue’ open-pollionated (105 days)—Most black popcorn varieties are small-eared but this one has 8-inch ears. Ornamental as well.

‘Nothstine Dent’ open-pollinated (100 days)—The dent corns are all considered to be the best for cornmeal.

‘Oaxacan Green’ open-pollinated (95 days)—A beautiful green kernel ancient heirloom that makes an incredible cornmeal, Tall stalks to 8 feet.

September 5, 2018

Planning Your Fall Veg Garden? Here's A Niki Jabbour Book Giveaway!

Niki Jabbour's newest book Veggie Garden Remix will inspire you to try new varieties and versions of both familiar veggies and even some new ones you may have never heard about.

If you don't know about Niki Jabbour then I don't know where you've been. I first heard of her as 'that girl who was kneeling in the snow in front of her cold frame' as pictured on one of her first books 'The Year-Round Vegetable Garden', but if you don't. live where the snow is as deep as it is in Niki's hometown of Halifax, Nova Scotia, no worries.  This isn't one of those regional books. Her work speaks to all gardeners no matter where you garden. She makes gardening feel easy and fun, approachable and achievable. Best of all, she does it all with a smile and an endlessly positive attitude. And then, of course, there is that endless energy thing that many of us wish that we had! I kind of wish I had that tone (or as my editor said to me: "You sound kind of negative here" or "I don't think you should discourage someone by making it look so difficult." You name it. Martha Stewart, Rachael Rae or Julia Child. All can have a different and useful voice on the same topic.

Niki is unique though. Part gardening evangelist, and part teacher (yet without the ruler). She is also part therapist, part coach and a big part evangelist.  Her hair is 100% Disney Princess ( I can say that cuz I worked on the doll line!). It's her everyday approach though that wins her many followers over. She is able to realize that we are all students yet we never get bored. She's cheerleadery enough but not cloyingly so .Just when you think that she is all "yay- mouse melons! They're SO cute!!!",  she backs it up with  "...and I grew these super long snake gourds from seeds (In Nova Scotia mind you!) and will be preparing them in a Syrian dish for my family this evening after I harvest 6 rows of beans that I'll be drying.". Yyyeah. Like that.   She's authentic and has 'walked-the-walk'.

Combined, I think this is why she has thousands of followers who are passionate and crazy about everything she says. She's just enough to excite the newbie but toothsome enough for the advanced gardener to discover something they might have not known. Kind of the perfect balance for todays gardening lifestyle.

Win Niki Jabbour's newest book VEGGIE GARDEN REMIX by leaving a comment on this post, below.

If you are the average veggie gardener (raised beds in a back yard) then you must get Niki's books. If you are thinking about growing veggies through the winter, in small hoops or in raised beds, you must get her books. An award-winning author of many books on veg gardening (A GWA trowel winner) , she is also a blogger ,Youtuber, and a columnist (Birds and Blooms, Horticulture magazine).her Instagram feed is lively and informative, and she is always reminding us (me)  that we are slacking in the garden (well, at least, me. Did I say that yet?). Yes. Niki makes me feel like a slacker.

It seems that every hour Niki  Jabbour is reminding me that I'm not doing enough in the garden or with my produce (but in a nice way!). She's Martha circa 1994 without a staff. Growing cayenne peppers, stringing them into ristra? Then drying them and grinding them into her own ground pepper? I have soooooooo much to catch up on! 

 Niki's been writing about gardening for years now.  And she doesnt seem to stop for anything. Her garden full of raised beds in Nova Scotia inspires her readers which apparently reach much further than Atlantic Canada! Niki  career is rocketing high in the gardening world (most recently assigned as columnist for     but her latest - Niki Jabnout's Veggie Garden Remix makes me a bit jealous (it's OK for me to say that, because she's a friend and a very good gardener), but 'jealous' because you might know that I just authored my own veg gardening book, but Niki wrote her book a year earlier and beat me to bar on lots of unusual and new veggies to grow.

Follow Niki on Instagram(@nikijabbour) and Fanboy along with me. 

Why am I pitching her book then if it competes with mine? Well, I think that it doesn't compete, rather they will complement each other so nicely. I feel completely comfortable in sharing that both of our books probably belong on your bedside table (and not on the proverbial 'shelf' as both will help inspire you in different ways. One introduces you, another explains the history and might show step-by-step photos. We, gardeners, tend to have more than one gardening book on the subject we like best anyway. In fact, some of us have a whole bookcase full! Niki goes into depth on some topics that I don't. and I do the same on other topics.

Classic Niki.  "Like Peas? Then Try these unusual varieties.". DId you know that there are snow peas, and then there are purple snow peas and yellow snow peas....(um...'yellow snow' peas?). Well, there are.

But back to Nikki's great book - this is a book you will use, believe me. That cucamelon trend on social media? I kind of think that it wasn't started by a chef or by Dutch food producers who brought the tiny melon-relative back to the Netherlands to try growing commercially in greenhouses, but it probably would never have taken off if it wasn't for social media, and for people who are so active on it like Niki is.  Sure 'cucamelon's (or 'mousemelon's' as many call them on social media) look like tiny doll-house sized watermelons, but have I tried growing them yet? Not really.

Sometimes I've just too serious with myself. Well, yes, I tried growing them twice, but my crop failed the first time three years ago, and then, whenever I tried, I just didn't take care of them thinking that they were just a novelty. Now, I think I am missing out!  Was just trying them simply because they seemed new or odd? Maybe they are worth working into my routine....what do you think? Novelty or hype? So much yet to learn! Niki's been posting about here cucamelons for about a month now on Instagram - but it's too late for me to try them until next year now. ugh!

The trendy 'cucamelon' is taking gardening blogs (just not this one yet) by storm. Niki has me thinking that maybe I really am missing out on something. This book is a great inspirational book for all levels of vegetable gardeners. There is always something new to try growing.

I never continued trying to grow them, assuming that they just a novelty that maybe isn't worth the effort (much like cape gooseberries, but that's another story, and again, maybe it's just me - but bleh. I can't seem to find a practical use for them in the kitchen.). Cucamelons though need people like Niki to promote them. Maybe they are delicious and worth growing? Anyway, she is continuing to inspire or at least remind me to at least try again.

Niki also introduces us to plenty of very useful 'new' or forgotten crops in her book. Some you will see in my book as well, like Celtuce, or celery lettuce. I've grown it on and off over the years but thought that for some reason - no one else knew about it. That is until I saw it featured in Niki's book.
Celtuce is worth growing, believe me, and I encourage everyone to give it a try. It's terribly popular in China, in fact, I almost forgot about it a few years ago until I saw something called 'stem lettuce' offered in a local Szechuan restaurant near our house. Crispy like a water chestnut, and looking lie slices of Jade, it's easy to grow and easy to cook.

Celtuce, or stem lettuce in a market in Yunnan China this past June. We saw red varieties growing everywhere as it seemed to be the primary crop in most of the fields. This is a thick-stemmed red-leaved variety not available commercially in North America but if enough of us ask for it, maybe it will? Not familiar with it? Get Niki's book to learn more about it.

Niki introduces new gardeners Stem Lettuce in her book, and I was so happy to see it listed that I sent her some seeds that I brought back from Yunnan this June where a red-leaved variety is very popular around the city of Shangri-La. Entire fields of the dark-leaved crop had Derry Watkins (from Special Plants Nursery in the UK) and I so curious that we drove our traveling companions crazy as we yelled to stop the jeeps to see what it was. Later, Derry and I found an agricultural shop that sold seed (all in Chinese)  but we were able to find both the red-leaved variety of stem lettuce as well as the thick-stemmed variety so popular in much of the rest of China.

Stem lettuce is really just a type of romaine lettuce. The story of how it arrived in China is long but interesting (in my book, out in December), but it does track back to its early use in Egypt and Rome. The lettuce we all know evolved from varieties that migrated into Europe, and stem lettuce evolved from early varieties that moved into China via the Silk Road. Stem lettuce really isn't new, it's as old as the tombs in Egypt (where it is often carved into as artwork). Sure Chinese immigrants most likely brought it with them into California during the Gold Rush (where it was reported to be grown in back-yard gardens) and some 19th-century seed catalogs listed it as
Asparagus Lettuce' due to the color of the stems, but it never caught on.

Burpee tried to introduce it under the branded name of celtuce (celery and lettuce) in the 1930's, but again, it just didn't become popular - until now. Thank you, Niki and new Chinese immigrants for reminding us that there are veggies still yet to be rediscovered (and there are plenty of others in Niki's book! Asian gourds, bitter melons, unusually cauliflower, purple-podded peas - if you're bored with your garden, get this book.

To enter my giveaway - just leave a comment before 9:00 PM EST this Sunday night, and I will use randomizer software to select a winner which I will announce by Monday morning.

August 24, 2018

Overcoming Soapy Cilantro, Woody Fennel and Early-Flowering Parsley

 Parsley varieties, such as these seed-raised varieties (from Johnny's) outperform any un-named generic variety bought at a nursery or garden center. It's time to elevate your parsley variety choices. There is much more to parlsey than just 'Flat Leaf Italian' and 'Curly' - which arent even varieties, by the way.

Are you suffering from parsley that keeps bolting in mid-summer? Does cutting this flower stalk off really encourage new growth? Are you finding that the cilantro at the farmers market or super market is just better than any you've grown at home? Are you sensing that your cilantro just always tastes more soapy than store bought? Have you given up on growing fennel bulbs because honestly - they ones you grow are just too tough, small and woody - or they bloom?

You are not alone. All of these plants share some similar (and different) challenges. The plant family Apiaceae (formerlly the umbelliferaceae) or the carrot family is notoriously difficult to master and these are all within this carrot family. Carrots of course have their challenges too, but they are more forgiving of things like temperature and when you sow them, which is where many of us are mislead when it comes to other apiaceae. To top-line any advice here - skip buying your parsley as seedlings or young plants, start them at home and keep them warm until you plant your tomatoes (you'll see why later), and as for notoriously hard-to-grow fennel, sow seed directly into the garden as you would dill - enver transplant, and try growing it later in the season as a fall crop. Celery is honestly the most difficult vegetable to grow well (at least as well as store bought), but you can get close - it just takes some work and lots of fertilizer.

Starting with parsley,  if you've noticed like us that your parsley isnt surviving the winter as it once used to, or that it now seems to bolt much sooner, you are like us. We started noticing this a few years ago but just thought that it was something due to drought or heat. I never though that it was something so easy to cure that I could have done it myself. The trick here is to start your own plants at home from seed, and to keep them warm - really. At least until you plant your tomatoes. Today, I dont even grow my parsley in the greenhouse until I know that it stays above 60 degrees, and it along with celery is often the last crop that I set outdoors -but why?

If you cant tell already - I really love parsley, dill and cilantro.  If I had to reduce my garden down to just a few raised beds, it would most likely start and end with these herbs because they are something I buy each week in the winter, and sometimes even in the summer -always on the shopping list. We are crazy cooks and it's not uncommon for me to need 4-6 cups of parsley in a recipie at one time, Rows of these herbs here are long, often 10 foot rows which shock those who don't cook, but really - one taboulli recipie or an Persian rice dish can use many cups of fresh herbs.

Fennel is related to parsley, celery and dill but it too is challenging to grow really well. If I had to share one tip, it would be to never transplant seedlings that one might find in the spring for sale. The best fennel comes from seed that is direct-sown in late June, thinned carefully and allowed to mature in late summer and fall.

Cilantro, dill and fennel, along with parsley are all in the family once known as the umbellifers but which now is called Apiaceae, or the carrot family. Biennial (these grow for a year, then bloom in the second year), the family shares some challenges  which relate to germination stubborness and an overall intollerance for root disturbance becasue they are tap-rooted plants. Direct sowing is always best as this is how they grow in the wild, and as we know with carrots and parsnips, the roots are rather important. With those where we eat the upper portions of the plant, we rarely think about root disturbance, and while parsley and celery can handle some transplanting when very young seedlings, by the time they are sold as transplants, they should never be torn apart from a container. Unfortunately, growers often sown enitre pinches of parsley seed in a pot today, to make a full-looking container, so it's becomeing harder and harder to find single plants in pots.

Not all garden centers are bad, for many sell very fine plants but it will help you to know what to look for when buying any plant or start when it's an apiaceae plant. Shortcut? Sure.

a. Sow seed directly into the soil of fennel, carrots, cilantro, caraway and dill.
b. Sow them thinly or well-spaced, and simply thin when it emerges - never transplant.
c Know that exposure to cold weather early spells doom for celery and parsley. I know - we think of these as cold tolerant crops, but cold affects these plants in a different way when young. Unless you know your nursery grower well and they can assure you that their young were kept warm until the weather fully warmed (and didnt display them outside along with pansies with snow-flurries happening), then go for the youngest seedlings in individual pots. Avoid larger plants. Very young plants are less likely to bolt from exposure to cold, but I'm talking 1 inch tall seedlings, and that isnt what we often find today in 6 packs and pots.
d. Better yet - start your parsley and celery at home, early in late winter.
e. Grow cilantro from seed, successively sown every few weeks but skip growing it in the hot summer months. Cilantro prefers cooler temps, and will taste soapy if the weather is hot (over 80 degrees). You best crop will come just before frost - really. Oh. And never, ever buy cilantro plants from a garden center, as this is just a waste of money. They won't grow into anything more, and will bloom within a few weeks, thus ending their life cycle. Cilantro has a 30 day life cycle from seed.

I go into the details for all of these crops in my upcomming book Mastering the Art of Vegetable Gardening, but I want to share bits and pieces here to help you this year and in planning next years' garden.

Cilantro Perfection

Cilantro is the easiest to master, but you may not like what you are going to read. Parsley does best not in hot weather but in cool, autumn weather. The good news is now is the time to sow cilantro (most commercial cilantro is grown in northern California and the Pacific Northwest. So, those posts about planting a salsa garden where tomatoes, chili'sand cilantro all grow together? Forget about it.

Cilantro can be grown all summer long if you are prepared to sow seed every two weeks and if you can keep it cool and growing stress free with consistant irrigation and if you can offer it some shade during the hottest weather. It will taste more soapy if grown in temperatures above 80 degrees however. Cilantro sown in September will last until frost however, often becoming better as the weather gets colder. Asfor spring plantings, it germinates poorly in cold soil and it doesnt transplant well.  Above all, never, ever buy seedlings of cilantro from a nursery. It's a waste of money and time as they are all too mature and will bloom, go to seed and die within a few weeks. Only buy a pot if you are going to use it in the kitchen within a week, but be wary of nursery sold transplants as they may have been treated with insecticide, growth regulators (drifted over from nearby tomatoes and peppers) or carelessly grown.

Cilantro is grown best with seed that is direct sown, even in containers where it does very well. I reccomend buying a large volume of seed, as cilantro is a quick crop, even quicker if sown in the summer. Plan on sowing it every two weeks in high summer, or every four weeks in cool weather, and pick it before it sets flowers or the flavor will change. If flowers do form, you can save the seeds which are the spice Coriander. Fresh green coriander seeds have their use in the kitchen in pickles or you can use the roots as well in may Asian dishes.

Mastering Parsley

To be totally honest,  I sometimes start my parsley from seed and in other years I just buy parsley plants from the garden center.  I also really didnt put much thought into what variety I was buying beyond the basics - Flat Leaf Italian or a curly parsley, usually I grew both - just assuming that there were only two types.

It's not that parsley isnt important around here, because it is. We like to cook and we use tons of parsley during the summer and autumn. We even used to dig some plants in the late autumn and brought them into a cool unheated room or under a bench in the greehouse just to extent the season incase the snow became too deep. You see, there was a time when parsley would last through the winter here and usually offer a secondary crop in early spring before new plants could be planted. Lately however, our parsley seems to bolt and go to seed in mid-summer during it's first year, and while it took me a few years to really notice it, I know know why this happens. If this is happening to you, I have some reasons why that might change how you grow parsley, or at the very least - how you buy parsley.

Here's the problem, and it's a rather new one. I don't want to blame big box stores or garden centers at not all of them do this, but this is a real problem and I just cant think of another way to address it. While there are many sins that occcur once plant arrive at a garden center, a common one is this: Parsley is sold too early in the spring, or it sold at too large a size (too mature), as well as parsley that is now sold like many other herbs, in 4 inch pots where many seeds have been sown. I guess with the assumption that a consumer will buy a pot with lots of seedlings (perceived value) beleiveing that it is a larger plant. Any attempt to divide a crowded pot of parsley seedlings is futile. The plants will grow a bit, but like all plants in apiaceae, they will suffer and the stress will most likely cause them to bolt or bloom too early.

The greatest error we can make with seedlings or young plants of certain plants within apiaceae is the size of the seedlings when we transplant it, or when we sow the seed outside (as with fennel, which rarely transplants well).

I won't lie, home raised celery is tough to grow. More often than not it ends up being woody, pithy and bitter, or it just bolts and blooms - it never looks like supermarket celery. The truth is celery has specific requirements which makes it easier to grow in certain parts of the country (Utah, Northern California and Oregon) but great parsley is grown elsewhere on farms. It demands such high fertility and moisture that few home gardeners are comfortable using these levels at home. I skip pesticides but use liquid (blue-water soluable feed weekly) which I am totally OK with because the pesticide levels used commercially are incredibly high (remember - celery is a prime pollinator host plant in the wild.).

What's tricky is what exactly affects flower initiation with these biennials, as it is often a combination of temperarure, night length and root disturbance or stress (no water) that brings on a metabolic response(responses to sugar production and photosyntheses within the cells) that often combine to trigger early blooming. Such flower initiation (or bolting) naturally would just happen in the second summer in their native habitat, but once we break that cycle and sow seeds in greenhouses and them truck them to garden centers in tiny cell containers, all sorts of mxed messages are sent to the plant.

If seedlings are kept too cold in early spring, especially after a plant as reached a specific size or maturity (often measured by the number of leaves it has produced - combined with roots which may have encircled a tiny pot, or a few skipped waterings at the garden center, or an over-eager home gardener tearing apart a pot which might have a few young plants in it in an effor to save every one, and voila - the plant bolts. As far as the plant is concerned, it's summer again and because it's a biennial, it's time to produce seed and die.

Celery, fennel and parsley all share this trait. They are particulary sensative to temperatures in the spring (exposure to temps below 40 degrees) which in the north is typically what hardy cold tolerant seedlings experience if they have been moved from a warm greenhouse too early and brought in a triuck to a garden center who might just display them outdoors.  It's an innocent error I guess, but it's become such a common one that I can only assume that it happens because staff at these garden centers just don't know any better. It's not as if they were trained on the specifics of vernalization, all they know is they if plants don't freeze when night temps dip below freezing (like pansies) that they can survive just fine outside.

Exposure to cold weather for parsley, celery and fennel is worse if one finds plants sold outside in larger sizes  which is becoming more popular. A 1 gallon or a quart sized pot sold at a big box store will cost more, but as the biennial plant is larger, it most certainly will bloom that coming summer and not survive into the following year. While there is nothing wrong in buying a plant which is clearly more than 6 months old, consumers should be aware of both the benifits as well as the disadvantages.

As for seedlings or smaller transplants, the safest way to avoid bolting during the first year is to be certain that the young plants have been kept in a warm greenhouse until outside temperatures stay above 55 degrees at night. Since many nurseries carry what we usually think of as 'cold tollerant crops' earlier and earlier but not choose to display them outside with the truly cold-tollerant plants like pansies, this bit of knowledge should help.

These are smaller parsley seedlings, which will do much better if you can find them this size. Unfortunately there are more than 6 plants in this pot, and as parsley dislikes transplanting at this stage, look for pots with a single plant in them if you want parsley to last through the winter. At this same store I found both small and large plants, it just depends on how long you expect your plants to live. At least Bonnie Plants had named varieties.

Parsley Growing Tips:
If you are a parsley fan, these tips may help you do even better with parsley.

1. Buy the youngest seedlings that you can find. Smaller is better. Five sets of leaves or larger and you risk inducing flowers after you plant it.

2. Ask the nursery or garden center if they have been kept warm (above 55 degrees at least) in a greenhouse. We all know that parsley is 'cold tollerant' but exposure to cold then extreme heat as one might experience with larger transplants at a nursery, and you risk inducing flowers via false vernalization (the plant thinks that it's experienced a mini-winter).

3. Plant parsley seedlings outside only when night temperatures remain above 55 degrees. If you see them sold along with pansies outside on racks, beware.  Remember - if there were flurries that week even though the young plants won't freeze, the damage has been done internally. The same goes for celery and fennel by the way. The challenge here is that celery and parsley must be sown under-glass or indoors very early however, while fennel does best sown directly later in spring or early summer. So there is no way around buying or growing parsley or celery transplants. One cannot direct sow them in most parts of the country.

4. The variety you grow makes a huge difference. We rarely think about something as mundane as parsley varieties but in fact, but there are many varieties of parsley available from seed, so why limit yourself to generic varieties (those tags that just say 'PARSLEY')?  And remember, 'Flat-Leaf' and 'Curly' are not varieties. (more on this below).

5. IF buying seedlings look for single plants -  not clumps of plants in a pot, which is hard to do nowadays. While parsley transplants well with one pair of leaves, they resist transplants progressively as plants are older. It's all about root disturbance, which is difficult to do as you may know if you've tried to pry apart a 4 inch pot with a few plants in it. Root disturbance too can cause bolting by mid summer.

6. Better yet, start your own parsley seedlings. Perhaps the only way to have total control if you have concerns, but be prepared, parlsey can be a bit tricky to to germinate and seeds will need to be started early in the year - often in late winter. Seed sown around late January will help alieve anxious gardeners who might be eager to start something early indoors as if seems we all keep hearing to hold off on starting most anything else too early, parsley (and celery) fit the bill.  Soak seed for a day or two, it's true- for a pre-treat with scalding water before sowing will increase success but seed will germinate without sowing as well, it just may be more irratic. Cover seed with 1/4 of vermiculite and cover tray with plastic wrap or a mini-greenhouse to increase humidity and keep tray near 70 degrees. Once seedlings emerge, you can find a slightly cooler location - 60 to 65 degree's is fine but no lower.

Indoor conditions for both parsley and celery will call for artificial lights (16 hours a day), and LED ones are best. Seedlings will grow slowly, so should not take up much space, but they must be transplanted while still small into individual cells or 3-4 inch pots in which they should remain until the weather outside is warm enought to plant tomatoes. If you live in a milder part of the country (California, Georgia, etc) you can sow seed in autumn or directly outdoors in late winter with little worry of false vernalization, this is a unique problem in colder areas where spring temperature vary and where one must plant parsley starts because the growing season is too short. USDA Zones 7 and lower.

Homegrown fennel needs slightly different conditions than it's kin parsley.  Never buy seedlings or start it early in pots if you want to avoid woody, flat or small, bolting plants. Seed direct outside in early to mid summer for ideal bulbs and just thin seedlings, nevrrer transplant them. As with dill and carrots, it's a root-disturbance thing. If grown well, home-raised fennel is infinately more tender, crispy and most of all healthier - really. Fennel uses the highest levels of insecticide of all vegetables when grown as a commerical crop. 

As a side note - why bother with all this? Why attempt growing parsley, celery, fennel and other difficult to grow apiaceae (Umbellifer) crops if they are so challenging? Why not just grow tomatoes and zuchinni and buy everything else at the supermarket? Well, consider this. Parlsey, celery, fennel and even carrots  use far more insecticides than you might imagine. While we often think of broccoli or cabbage as a high pesticide crop, nothing aside from apples come close to the amount of pesticides used on apiaceae crops.

All of the Apiaceae(umbellifers) are great pollinator host plants. More lepidoptera larvare are attracted to the foliage as well as adults to the blossoms. If you plants bloom, just write off the lot as a polliantor garden.

Why? Think about it...these are the ultimate pollinator crops, right? And while we home growers encourage or at least tollerate a few benificial caterpillars on our parsley and carrots, even a Black Swallowtail Butterfly larvae is the last thing a supermarket or market grower needs to find on their shelves. And few crops attract as many lepidoptera species as do plants within apiaceae. Some list more than 50 species on these host plants. When I insist on buying organic vs conventional (which honestly, isn't all the time) I begin first with organic celery, cilantro and parsley. Hands down.

While at a local mom and pop nursery I found many cell pack with apiaceae crops which frankly should never be sold. These celery seedlings are healthy looking though and are at the perfect size for transplanting. I would just be cautious as they have been displayed outside, this was taken in April. Night temps still dipped into the 30's which will vernalize celery at this stage, inducing early flowering. If these were kept in the hoop house behind, I would have felt better taking a chance. NOTE:The generic label - It just says Celery. 

I'm OK with branded vareties as long as the buyer knows what they are getting. These plants were sold along side smaller parsley seedlings and they were properly labeled, but as larger one gallon containers, I might back up my planting with some younger plants as these will mature and bloom by mid-summer. Plan on using these larger plants for only the cool months of spring.

Botanically speaking, parsley regardless of the variety is of the same genus and species - Petroselinum crispum. There are however two subspecies (or more accurately 'groups'  or  'types') which we often see used as variety names.  Know that  'flat-leaved' and 'curly' are not proper ways to reference parsley, nor are they varieties no matter what the other blogs and cooking sites will tell you. There are two sub-groups relate to these two leaf shapes - Crispus (curly-leaved types),  and Neopolitanum (flat-leaved Italian types).

There are dozens of named varieties, most of which fall into these two groups, but often they all offer unique charateristics. Some are best for commerical growers - to dry or to ship long distances, others for flavor or texture, and many just for their looks or performance in small pots at retail nurseries. I would hope that you want the best varieties for flavor or for cooking, and not ones that produce a nice 4 inch pot that fits on a shelf at a big box store or doesnt wilt while being shipped in a waxed box from California - unless of course you like the taste of moldy cardboard in your tabouli.

At this same nursery I found this.  Obviously avoid seedlings that have these generic labels (this goes for all veggies). These are low-cost value plant starts grown by a plug grower who doesnt care about variety or success in the garden, not to mention that one cannot divide and transplant carrots. Carrots must be sown direct into the grown and simply thinned.

'Titan' is a unique flat-leaf type of parsley that all the top chefs want from their specialty market grower.  We just don't know about it yet. It has smaller, crispier and thicker leaves then any other flat type, and it is sweeter and very tender. So useful, with a nice flavor and thus great in the kitchen. I am addicted to it but you'll have to raise this one from seed.

Here are the Parsley Varieties That Might Change How You Feel About Parsley

There are a surisingly lot of named parsley varieties out there, but few offerend in catalogs for the home growers. Johnny's Selected Seeds seems to offer the most but also try European catalogs or commerical farming sites. Wholesale growers grow quick crops of varieties like 'Decorator', 'Moss Green', Sherwood' and 'Forest Green' -- they are primarily growing parsley for how it ships and looks however, and these are varieties most common in northern California, Texas and Florida where parsley crops are sown three time a year, year round.

Try these instead of just plain 'curly' or 'flat leaved'.

'Darki' is one of the curliest of they new curly parsley's. It's a premium variety much nicer than any other including 'Moss II'. Grown in containers it's practically ornamental, and chopped in salads or dishes, it's un-equalled.

'Darki' - which OK - I admit sounds a bit racist but only you have the complexion of a dark green alien perhaps, as this is a spectacular curley leaved parlsey variety that I first heard about from a chef who asked me if I grew it. It has exceptionally curly leaves which almost look like mounds of green moss. No kidding, but most of all it is tender and curlier than most 'moss' varieties.

'Peione' is a large, Italian Flat-Leaved type with beautiful, large leaves and crispy stems. The plants are large and require a deep root run.

'Peione'  - This flat-leaf type is an improved 'Giant of Italy', a selection of flat-leaved parsley which already was popular with chefs and gardener as the plants grow almost as large as small celery plants and seem to last better in mild winters, but 'Peione' goes a step further by adding disease resistance  especially powdery mildew which can ruin a crop in the Northeast.  I should mention that leaves are of a higher quality. gardeners who cook will want to grow multiple varieties of parsley as each has their use in the kitchen.

'Titan' - While another flat-leaf type, this makes a spectacular container plant as well as a fine culinary variety. Titan as smaller leaves - much smaller than any other flat-leaf type, and I find it to be crispier, or thicker-leaved which makes it perfect for chopping and slicing into dishes. The flavor is almost sweet which makes it a better choice for use as a fresh parsley.

Other varieties include 'Pagoda' grown for it's longer stem, 'Extra Triple Curley Frisca' which like it's name hints at, is extra curly. 'Krousa', a triple-extra-curly variety introduced for home growers, 'Optima', 'Clivi', 'Prezzemolo', 'Laura' and the large leaved Italian varieties which are often sold with elaborate Italian names. Some growers separate the curly varieties into groups based on their curlyness, referring to them as 'garnish vaireites'. They are Double-Curled, Triple-Curled (like 'Paramount') and Multi-Curled or Super-Curled (like 'Lisette').

My point here is why settle for growing a plant that has a label that just says ' Parsley'?