Today, in our over;y DIY cutlure, the term 'terrarium' can have a wide definition - ranging from succulents planted in an open bowl, to a hanging glass sphere with nothing in it much more than a tuft of reindeer moss and an airplant. I suppose, one can stretch the definition in all sorts of directions, jsut pick up any book on Terrariums or Google the the word - it can all become pretty confusing.
As a decorative craft, I can understand the one side of the definition, as even though most of these plantings wont last longer than a month or two, the process of making a jar with moss, a couple of plants and perhaps a fun prop or two is great fun. Even better for kids, and let's face it - these projects are often the entry level drug for greater plant exploration.
Assembling a good, proper terrarium is akin to assembling a good, proper salt water tank. Perhaps not as specific, but you get the general idea -- you are creating an environment, a specific habitat, and believe me -- in nature, there is no habitat where African Violets grow alongside cacti and succulents. So whether you are recreating bit of the high elevation rain forest in Borneo or a lowland rainforest with napenthes and other insect eating plants, essentially you are creating a biosphere. I would imagine that if you really get into it, building a good, real terrarium can be not only a learning experience for the whole family, it can be truly fun.
Terrariums have a long history dating back to the early plant explorers who used such 'Wardian cases' in which to bring back plants on sailing ships in the 18th and 19 centuries, later, in the Victorian era, such cases were used to grow fussy, difficult or challenging collections of precious plants which required special conditions. Of course, this is how I like to treat my terrariums - a containers for very special plants, some of which actually prefer the conditions more than they do inside my larger glass greenhouse.
Even though I don't mind seeming bad advice on other sites, as it seems people still enjoying making terrariums, but it does bother me that few sites seems to offer good advice. You see, terrariums culture is a rather precise science - and there are plenty of plants which grow extremely well in the enclosed environment of a glass terrarium, but few if any of these plants are ever seen featured in blogs or large magazine brand websites which seem to all prefer to show succulents or cacti along with moss, stones and glass.
|I collected various mosses from around the back yard and from the woods out back.|
OK, while I am on my soapbox again - endulge -- have no idea how many times I am asked by various major home lifestyle magazine to write an article about this or that - currently and article about good winter houseplant suggestions (currently, for a February issue). I complied, then my choices were changed and they asked me if it was OK. I wasn't OK because their editors felt that they wanted to feature miniature Anthuriums (really). A week later, the editor sent me another note saying that they changed their mind again, because Anthuriums were poisonous they discovered, and asked if I then could suggest something else ( I had originally suggested a few new citrus and colorful rhizomatous begonias). In the end, I heard nothing, but it does show you how such topics are researched and written today.
Of course, we should not forget the 80's when sandart came onto the scene - jars with layers of multicolored sand in groovy tones of the desert and sea. These were often planted with cacti and succulents - some of the worst candidates for air tight glass containers. If you are interested in making a terrarium, there are ways to create these closed in environments where the plants will actually thrive. There are so many misguided directions out there on the Internet - ranging from succulents like living stones ( Lithops) and cacti in sand, to air plants and moss - all certainly cool looking, but terrible candidates for a terrarium.
|Looking around the greenhouse, there are a few plants which I felt would do well together in a terrarium. The ferns are smaller growing species, and the begonias are smaller growing species that actually prefer terrarium culture.|
Choosing plants that really demand terrarium culture - really - there are plant that prefer terrarium over any other way to grow them, even a greenhouse - warm, moisture loving jungle plant like ferns and mosses do well together, as do certain gesneriads (African violet family). Many Begonia species and hybrids love glassed in containers.
Plant similar plants together - for example, not all orchids love the environment of a terrarium - in fact, very few orchids do, and any that you buy at Home Depot or the supermarket won't do well in one - rather, it's some tiny species that particularly do well like Dracula and a few tiny Dendrobium species. Do a little research and you'll be surprised at how botanically interesting a terrarium can be - combining rare orchids like the tiny Dendrobium cuthbertsonii selections with other small terrarium orchids like the pleurothallids - check out Mountainside Orchids in Vermont for some amazing terrarium orchids and begonias.
When I plant a terrarium, I like to combine plants that prefer the same conditions. A terrarium won't last forever, most need to be replanted every year or at least, edited but again, these are plants, and they grow. If you need to replant your terrarium, you are probably doing something right.
Terrariums are best if kept clean, so I start with a good commercial potting mix. The Perlite in it can be unattractive though, so I mound the soil higher in the center, and use gravel at a higher level on the glass. One would want to avoid white Perlite from floating up onto the moss, but garden soil would be too dense for me to use. A good compost if you have it will do well too. Fast draining soil that holds moisture is best, and most woodland plants, whether they come from the jungles of Ecuador or from upstate New York prefer fibrous, damp aerated growing material. In most cases, a deep layer of moss will do for these plants, as would live sphagnum if you can find it. I only use a half an inch of soil, relying on moss mostly to create my growing medium.
|Tucking moss in under leaves of plants that tend to lie on the ground such as the leaves on this Begonia crispula will help keep the leaves healthy.|
Along with begonias, ferns are the perfect companion plants for terrariums. This Polypodium formosanum (you can find them on-line here at Black Jungle Terrarium Supply) which has these attractive almost teal-blue creeping rhizomes. This is a smaller growing fern which I like because it looks like one of our native Polypodium virginianum. This tropical Poly has colorful rhizome which in some light conditions can look pale blueish green, almost like jadite. This is a fern that really demands either greenhouse or terrarium conditions, so it's a difficult houseplant unless one has a very humid house.
I keep a few of these Polypodium formossanum in the greenhouse, mostly in handing baskets where it makes a very nice, but slightly fussy specimen plants. Forget watering it just once, and it will loose it's leaves. I look for rhizomes that I can cut which have a few leaves on the, and these two above are starting to bury themselves near the edge of the pot - so I will cut these with a knife, and remove them for the terrarium planting.
The rhizomes come out easily, with a few roots. IT will transplant well with little disturbance, and by next summer, I can remove it and replant it into a larger container - most likely just one with sphagnum in it, which this species prefers as a growing medium. Until then, my terrarium will act as a propagating case, and no one will know the wiser. I have an unknown Davallia species which I too added to this planting. Another fern, similar to the common Rabbit's foot fern.
No plastic deer for me. A few pieces of bark from where I collected my moss with lichens on it will add the perfect color and tone for this case.
A good drink of water - I mean, a really good drench as there is a pan with drainage in this, is all that is needed. I will rarely have to water it once it is in the house, so I want a good soaking so that no dry soil exists.
|THE FINAL PLANTING ALREADY LOOKS HAPPY. IT WILL MAKE A NICE ADDITION TO MY DESK.|